Iron and steel manufacturing is one of the most energy-intensive industries worldwide. In addition, use of coal as the primary fuel for iron and steel production means that iron and steel production has among the highest carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions of any industry. According to the International Energy Agency (IEA), the iron and steel industry accounts for the largest share — approximately 27 percent — of CO2 emissions from the global manufacturing sector. Annual world steel demand is expected to grow from approximately 1,410 million tonnes (Mt) of crude steel in 2010 to approximately 2,200 Mt in 2050. The bulk of this growth will take place in China, India, and other developing countries in Asia. This significant increase in steel consumption and production will drive a significant increase in the industry’s absolute energy use and CO2 emissions.
In China the iron and steel industry accounted for around 27 percent of primary energy consumption of Chinese manufacturing in 2010. The iron and steel industry, as a pillar industry for Chinese economic development, has grown rapidly along with the national economy. The crude steel production in 1996 exceeded more than 100 Mt. Since then, steel production in China has continued to increase rapidly, and China has been the world’s largest crude steel producer for 16 continuous years. China represented 47% of the world steel production in 2010. For this reason, the development path of China’s iron and steel sector will greatly affect future energy demand and dynamics in China.
Iron and steel production generates CO2 emissions as 1) process emissions, in which raw materials and combustion both may contribute to CO2 emissions; 2) emissions from combustion sources alone; and 3) indirect emissions from consumption of electricity. The total CO2 emissions of a typical integrated steel plant are equal to 1.8 t CO2/t rolled coil.
EAGER Steel tool has been developed by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. EAGER Steel tool allows you to evaluate the impact of selected energy efficiency measures in the iron and steel industry by choosing the measures that you would likely introduce in your facility, or would like to evaluate for potential use. You select the share of implementation for each of the efficiency measures, and the EAGER Steel tool will calculate the typical energy savings (electricity, fuel, final, and primary energy), CO2 emission reduction, cost, and simple payback period.
PHASTEx is a modified Excel format version of The Process Heating Assessment and Survey Tool (PHAST). It is developed by E3M Inc. in collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). It is available in English and Chinese versions and posted on LBL China Group website. PHASTEx software tool is designed to improve energy efficiency and save energy for industrial heating systems.